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Editing under Linux is basically the same as editing under Unix.
Under Linux the following editors (at least) exist :
vi - the vanilla Unix editor from the 60's, a screen-based modal editor
with cryptic commands, no online help, on Linux it is cursor sensitive when
running under X11,
emacs - the super duper configurable editor from the GNU project,
includes an online help, fully screen based, LISP interpreter, lots
of language sensitive configurations are available, somewhat cryptic
joe - a mode-less editor similar to PC editors, fully featured screen
editor, users of Wordstar and Turbo language type editors will feel
at home with this one,
xedit - simple text editor for X.
Seeing as editing is such a personal matter 1.
it is not advisable to standardise on editors,
every programmer should be free to make their own choice.
File names should follow the standard Unix conventions for suffixes
e.g. C/C++ code must use the .c suffix, Fortran the .f suffix,
include files the .h suffix and so on.
Refer to the compiler man page when in doubt.